WHY | Why do I need to know about mTOR? (short for mammalian target of rapamycin)

Rapamycin is a bacterial macrolide with antifungal and immunosuppressant activities (1). Rapamycin forms a complex with the immunophilin FKBP12 which then inhibits the activity of FRAP/ mTOR (TOR in yeast) (2,3). Rapamycin treatment of cells leads to the dephosphorylation and inactivation of p70 S6 kinase. Rapamycin also leads to the dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1/PHAS1, thereby promoting its binding to and inactivation of eIF4E (4,5). This activity has been shown to be the basis for Rapamycin's ability to block protein synthesis and to arrest cell cycle progression in the G1-phase (6,7). However, it has been suggested that Rapamycin's inhibition of the G1/S transition may be the consequence of its effect on cyclin D1 mRNA and protein stability (8).

  1. Dumont, F. J. et al. (1990)J. Immunol. 144, 251-258.

  2. Brown, E. J. et al. (1994) Nature 369, 756-758.

  3. Kunz, J. et al. (1993) Cell 73, 585-596.

  4. Jefferies, H. B. et al. (1997) EMBO J. 15, 3693-3704.

  5. Beretta, L. et al. (1996) EMBO J. 15, 658-664.

  6. Thomas, G. and Hall, M.N. (1997) Curr. Opin. Cell. Biol. 9, 782-787.

  7. Dennis, P. B. et al. (1999) Curr. Opin. Genet. & Develop. 9, 49-54.

  8. Hashemolhosseini, S. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14424-14429.

1. Many diseases are associated with hyperactivity of mTOR, including aging, cancer, autoimmune diseases (mTOR increases Th1 and Th17), depression, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, kidney disease, autism, chronic pain.

2. Continued high mTOR activity may shorten a person's life.

3. Usually you want to change the state of the cells, repair the cells, slow down aging, you may need to do 100 things. But if you want to do all this with one click, it's to operate mTOR.

4.mTOR is like a general contractor in a cell, it regulates almost all important processes in the cell metabolism process.

WHAT | What is mTOR?

1.mTOR is the "mammal lepamycin target protein".

2.mTOR has two composites, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In general, mTORC1 plays a more important role in health and disease.

3.mTOR is related to many things, but the most important thing is to regulate autophagy.

4. Autophagy is the body's self-cleaning process - cells remove internally damaged ingredients and then remanufactive them.

5. Autophagy can clean up garbage on the one hand, and reduce apoptosis and cancer on the other. However, the autophagy process is easy to start only when the mTOR is reduced. Therefore, we do not expect mTOR activity has been too high.

WHAT | What increases the activity of mTOR?

1. Factors that activate mTOR include protein (especially leucine), excess calories, carbohydrates, insulin, exercise, and other hormones and metabolic factors (appetite, IGF-1, testosterone, gastropholic, leptin, thyroid hormone, IL-6, etc.).

2. Carbohydrates indirectly activate mTOR by raising insulin, and amino acids (proteins) activate mTOR directly.

3.mTOR is activated, ATP production increases, new mitochondria are produced, but more "garbage" is generated.

4. Activating mTOR in muscles is generally a good thing because it helps to strengthen muscle, but activating mTOR in fat and liver is not very good. If you want to be a big muscle baron, then you need to activate mTOR, but too much muscle is bad for longevity.

5. Exercise activates mTOR in the brain and muscles and reduces mTOR in fat and liver cells.

HOW | How do I suppress mTOR?

1. Many anti-aging programs and the mechanism of disease treatment are to suppress mTOR.

2.mTOR is the "mammal rapamycin target protein", the most direct way to inhibit mTOR is to use "rapamycin". Of course it's a drug, and there may be a risk.

Calorie restriction, fasting, protein restriction can inhibit mTOR - which is why eating less and cutting off lightly can promote longevity.

4. Other common substances that inhibit mTOR include: metformin, NAC, resveratrol, aspirin, omega-3 fatty acids, EGCG, curcumin, sulphuric acid, caffeine, celery flavonoids, quercetin, red sky, and other polyphenols and flavonoids. The most commonly used are metformin, resveratrol, EGCG and curcumin.

5. But we don't want mTOR to be suppressed for a long time. mTOR is necessary for the normal operation of all cells (making organelles, making proteins, and achieving cell division).

6. By consuming very little protein or limiting calories for a long time, your mTOR can be kept at a low level, but you may also be malnourished as a result.

HOW | How to achieve a balance?

1. Fairy wind tunnel bone must not be cancerous, but will lack muscle. Preventing muscle loss is important for health.

2. For health and longevity, we hope that mTOR levels in the body are low in most cases and activated in only a few cases. We need a balance between energy generation and garbage cleanup.

3. There are at least 3 ways to eat. (1) Limit the daily eating window: within 9 hours; (2) occasionally cut off food for 1-2 days; and (3) refer to the simulated cut-off diet (FMD).

4. FMD diet, that is, 5 days a month to eat only 900 calories, and mainly plants.

Eat about 1,000 calories on the first day of 5 days (about 10% protein, 50%-60% fat, 30%-40% carbohydrate), and about 700 calories on day 2- - 5 (about 10% protein, 45-50% fat, 45%-50% carbohydrate). The FMD diet can effectively relieve type 2 diabetes and may improve inflammation of the intestines.

5. During periods of eating or calorie restriction, it is best to do strength training - activate mTOR in the muscle to prevent muscle loss.

Summary | Musson said

Long-term hyperactivity of mTOR is associated with many diseases.

But mTOR itself is necessary for the normal functioning of cells.

What we need is to ensure a balance.

What you can do is eat less or not occasionally, but don't let yourself be malnourished.

Read more at The Risky Anti-Aging Pill Men Are Taking Now - Rapamycin (