Notesbook1 for ED Resenthal
Marijuana Production – More Art than Science
There are five factors that affect marijuana growth: light, CO2 , nutrients, water, oxygen, and temperature.
see page 114 for seeds sorces
Tetrahydro-Cannabinoid plus other 100-odd cannabinoids one of them are CBD Canabidol - —including cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC) and cannabigerol (CBG)—are scarcely noted.
Terpenes are major components of marijuana resin, just as they make up the largest percentage of aromatic essential oils contained in most plants.
three species should be recognized, based on whether they are cultivated primarily for fiber (sativa) or drugs (indica), or grow wild (ruderalis).
The most popular strains show a substantial percentage of THC, generally registering 15% to 20% of bud weight
Indica – Sativa
Indicas, which include kush varieties (sometimes called Afghan), generally mature early
Ruderalis is a wild or feral variety of auto-flowering marijuana, which does not wait for shorter days to begin budding
Sativas require a long time to mature because they originated in areas that have a long season. They are usually very potent, containing large quantities of THC. The highs they produce are described in such terms as psychedelic, dreamy, spacey, and creative.
Marijuana has been developed from two potent sub-species or varieties: indica and sativa.
Purple Kush is a pure Indica strain that resulted from crossing the Hindu Kush and Purple Afghani strains. It is one of the most potent Indica strains in the world, with an average THC level of 22%
fiber are known as hemp
Smell - Most aromas we associate with plants are the result of terpenes, MYRCENE (Mango) is the most prevalent terpene found in most varieties of marijuana, Other: LIMONENE, B-CARYOPHYLLENE , PINENE , TERPINEOL BORNEOL and others (page 80)
more cost effective to provide plants with mostly red rather than blue light. Adding red spectrum during the last half of flowering increases the size and density of the buds and shortens flowering time.
Sativas require the most light . Sativaindica hybrids require bright light. They will produce luscious buds when illuminated with as little as 60 w/sq ft (640 w/sq m
To maintain a fast growing garden, a minimum of 30 watts of fluorescent light per square foot is required during the vegetative growth period. More light —up to 40-60 watts per square foot—produces more high-quality growth. As long as the plants’ other needs are met, the more light that the plants receive, the faster and bushier they will grow.
5.5 to about 6.5 in mineral soil and 5.6 to 6.4 in a hydroponic medium For absolute control of a planting medium system, test the pH weekly Plants growing in hydroponic systems have more effect on the pH of the water/nutrient solution, so it should be checked every day or two. Adjust pH after nutrients are added, since they affect its balance Water that is too acidic can alternatively be neutralized using potassium bicarbonate (backing soda), or wood ash. Water that is too alkaline can be adjusted using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, citric acid (Vitamin C), kombucha tea or vinegar . To protect the micro-life, remove the chlorine from the water.
NUTRIENTS AND FERTILIZERS
Hydroponic fertilizers are blended as balanced and complete nutrient formulas. Non-hydroponic fertilizers often contain only macronutrients—nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Organic fertilizers, such as fish emulsion, guanos and manures, and many blends of organics, contain additional trace elements found in the organic matter from which they are derived. Fertilizers may contain an incomplete menu of nutrients; always check the labels.
Demand for critical nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) varies with the growing conditions and changes during the plant’s life cycle. Marijuana uses more N during the vegetative cycle (before flowering) than in later stages. The plant’s use of P increases when it begins to flower, while the need for K increases after fertilization to aid flower formation and seed production. Organic ingredients usually contain micronutrients as well as macronutrients. Make sure to look at the figures on the bag container when you purchase supplements. In addition to N-P-K, look to see if the product contains calcium (Ca), sulfur (S) and magnesium (Mg), which are crucial for bud formation Organic fertilizers are usually not used in hydroponic systems because they ferment in reservoirs and are not completely soluble, so they clog up some systems Most hydroponic formulas and other water-soluble fertilizers are formulated from minerals blended to create soluble salts. These dissolved salts are composed of molecules small enough to be absorbed through the root openings and are instantly available to the plants. These fertilizers can be used to provide nutrients either on a regular basis or a quick fix to resolve deficiency problems
In a hydroponic system, nutrients can get locked up and become unavailable to the plant if they aren’t delivered in pure, fresh, pH balanced water. Home and Garden Aqua Flakes Nutrients supply the plants with essential nutrients and cleans the water. Page 320
When managing a hydroponic system, it is important to balance the correct amount of nutrients in clean, pH adjusted water. The Dosa Easy-Feed System allows the grower to arrange water and nutrient components to meet their individual needs. It allows up to eight different nutrients, additives, and pH adjusters in series at 60 psi.
Nitrogen (N) deficiency is the most commonly occurring nutrient deficiency in cannabis. Page 343. N is the first number of the three number set found on all fertilizer packages, which list N-P-K, always in that order. Any water-soluble fertilizer much higher in N than P and K can be used to solve N deficiencies very quickly. Most hydro “Vegetative Formulas” fall into this category
Marijuana grows well in moderate temperatures – between 70° and 85° F (21°-29° C). Plants growing under moderate intensity lamps (40-50 watts per sq ft, 430- 540 watt per sq m) should be kept on the low side of the recommended temperature range. Plants growing under higher intensity lamps (60 watts per sq ft, 650 watts per sq m and higher) should be kept on the warmer end of the scale. During dark periods, the temperature can be kept as much as 10˚ F (5˚ C) cooler than the lit period without any negative effects
TEMPERATURES PLANTS LIKE
Germination: 70-78° F (21-25° C)
Vegetative: 68-82° F (20-27° C)
Flowering: 68-80° F (20-26° C)
Cloning: 75-85° F (24-20° C)
There are several ways to manage heat in an indoor garden space:
Don’t create a hot environment - Run lights at night - Vent the garden area with filtered air. - Install an air conditioner. - Use a cooler
Install fans or swamp fans. Some greenhouses have roofs that open to let hot air escape and draw cooler air in. page 360
Cannabis grows best in an environment that is mildly humid: 40-55 % relative humidity
A dehumidifier can also resolve the problem in closed environments.
The processes of germination, seedling growth, vegetative, flowering and ripening happen over a 100 to 130-day time period. Red light from 660 to 680 nm prevents flowering. A short burst of farred light at 730 nm after lights out or dusk accelerates flowering.
Indoor gardeners use fluorescent, metal halide, high-pressure sodium and LED lamps. Mixing light sources such as fluorescents or LEDs with high intensity discharge lamps helps the garden because together they provide more light and can fill in the partially shaded areas.
Plants grown in soil mixes can typically get along using basic fertilizers such as compost and manure, while plants grown in soilless mixes require micronutrient enrichment in the form of mineral nutrients in the water.
Using modern varieties that ripen in 7-9 weeks, gardeners can expect yields in the described range.
A 600w lamp produces a yield of about 250-660 grams. The 600w is the most efficient of the HPS lamps. • A 1000w lamp produces a yield of about 375-1000 grams
Sativa plants require about 66 watts per sq ft (700 watts per sq m). Sativa-indica hybrids do best at 60 watts per sq ft (640 watts per sq m) but grow well at about 50 watts per sq ft (535 watts per sq m). Indicas grow well on 40-45 watts per sq ft (425-480 watts per sq m). They grow bigger, tighter buds at a higher wattage.
one plant might yield a quarter ounce and the other more than a pound (7g-0.5 k).
Overwatering combined with a dense, non-porous medium makes roots vulnerable to mold and diseases. House and Garden Roots Excelurator removes mold and disease from the root system removes as well as inoculates the soil with beneficial bacteria that facilitate root growth.
Propogation and Seed Cultivation—Fine grade perlite makes a good medium for seed starting and cloning because it maintains a uniform moisture level.
Hydroponics—Perlite’s capillary action and fast drainage are ideal qualities for hydroponic mediums. It makes water management self-regulating. It is inert so it doesn’t interfere with fertilizer and nutrient programs. peat moss, coconut
HYDROPONICS page 470
LECA (Light Expanded Clay Aggregate) can be used as a media in all types of hydroponic systems including Reservoir, Wick, Deep Water Culture -WDC
There are several ways to eliminate these odors: carbon filters, negative ionizers, odor absorbing gel, and ozone generators.